where the expression for

z# 0.1zicis the free convection limit (Panofsky et al. 1977), for0.1

zi<z#zicis the mixed-layer value (Hicks 1985), and forz>zicis a parameterization toconnect the mixed layer F

2

wcto the assumed near-zero value well above the CBL. An exampleprofile of convective vertical turbulence described in eq. (35) is presented in Figure 6.

The mechanical turbulence (F

wm) is assumed to consist of a contribution from the boundarylayer (F

wml) and from a “residual layer” (Fwmr) above the boundary layer (z>zi) such that,This is done to satisfy the assumed decoupling between the turbulence aloft (

z>zi) and that atthe surface in the CBL shear layer, and to maintain a continuous variation of F

2

wmwithznearz =

zi.The expression for F

wmlfollowing the form of Brost et al. (1982) iswhere the F

wml =1.3u*atz =0 is consistent with Panofsky et al. (1977).

Above the mixing height F

wmris set equal to the average of measured values in the residuallayer above

zi. If measurements are not available, then Fwmris taken as the default value of 0.02

u{zi}. The constant 0.02 is an assumed turbulence intensityiz(=Fwm / u) for the very stableconditions presumed to exist above

zi(Briggs 1973). Within the mixed layer the residualturbulence (F

wmr) is reduced linearly from its value atzito zero at the surface. Figure 7 presentsthe profile of the mechanical portion of the vertical turbulence in the CBL. The effect of

combining the residual and boundary layer mechanical turbulence (eq. (36)) can be seen in this

figure.

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