Examined the performance of the MM5 model configurations using various cloud

schemes (including Kain-Fritsch and Reisner schemes) for the 12 km (WRAP) and 36

km domains. The results showed that cool and moist bias found in the West,


overprediction of convective precipitation using KF.

23. Zhang, Y., et al., “Development and Application of MADRID: A New Aerosol Module in

CMAQ”, CMAS Annual workshop, RTP, NC, 2003.

• Evaluated CMAQ-MADRID against SCAQS 1987 episode. The performance of

CMAQ-MADRID seemed to perform well in O3, PM2.5, and sulfates, and comparable

in other PM 2.5 species to other models (UAM-IV/CALGRID/UAM-AERO, GATOR,


• Described the development and sciences of MADRID aerosol module included in

CMAQ. Key features: sectional (size bins), hybrid equilibrium, more sophisticated

SOA treatment, CMU aqueous chemistry

24. Morris, R., et al., “WRAP Multi-Model Evaluation Using the 1996 36 km Section 309

Database”, National RPO Modeling Meeting, Denver, CO, 2005e.

• Conducted WRAP 1996 multi-model evaluation. Compared CMAQ (v4.3), REMSAD

(v7), CAMx (bimodal PM), and CAMx (4-section PM) using the 1996 36-km section

309 database.

• Indicated that sulfate was the best performing species on an annual basis, with a winter

overprediction compensating for a summer underprediction; NO3 was predicted poorly

by all models; OC, EC, and CM were underpredicted by all models. concluded that

modeling is more challenging in the West than in the


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