12. Ku, C., CENRAP, “CMAQ and CAMx Simulations for January and July 2002”, National

RPO Modeling Meeting, Denver, CO, 2005.

• Compared CMAQ and CAMx 36-km simulations Based on January and July 2002

(basB) over a continental US domain.

• Indicated that the results were mixed for the models over CENRAP generally. Both

models performed acceptably for PM2.5 and sulfate in the summer (when sulfate is

abundant) but they were overpredicted in the winter compared against IMPROVE


• CAMx significantly overpredicted nitrate in the winter (higher prediction than

CMAQ), but has better performance in OM (lower prediction than CMAQ), based on

performance measures of normalized bias and errors.

• The study also showed mixed results for the models in three climatically different

regions in CENRAP that contain Class I areas, with varying performance depending on

region and season. This finding points up the difficulty in improving model

performance over the whole CENRAP domain.


13. Eder B. and Yu S., “An Evaluation of the 2003 Release of Models-3/CMAQ”, CMAS

Annual workshop, RTP, NC, 2003.

• Illustrated CMAQ 2003 evaluation for two episodes (winter 2002 and Summer 1999)

for O3 and PM 2.5 species against AIRS, CASTNet, IMPROVE, and STN. Suggested

the use of the performance metrics of Normalized Mean Bias (NMB)and Normalized


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