Zhang, X. and P. H. McMurry, (1992), “Evaporative losses of fine particulate nitrates during

sampling”, Atmospheric Environment, 26, 3305-3312.

Zheng, M., G.R. Cass, J.J. Schauer, and E.S. Edgerton, (2002), “Source apportionment of PM2.5

in the southeastern United States using solvent-extractable organic compounds as

tracers”, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 2361-2371.


Modeled attainment demonstration - A modeled attainment demonstration consists of two parts: an

analysis estimating emission levels consistent with attainment of the NAAQS, and a list of measures that

will lead to the desired emission levels once growth is accounted for. The first (analysis) part consists of

a modeled attainment test. It may also include an “unmonitored area analysis” and a review of a diverse

set of model outputs and emissions, air quality and meteorological data for consideration in a weight of

evidence determination to assess whether attainment of the NAAQS is likely with the proposed control


Modeled attainment test - This test takes the ratio of mean predicted future and current ozone or PM2.5

species concentrations averaged over multiple days and multiplies this ratio times the site-specific

monitored design value at each monitoring location. If the product is less than the NAAQS near all

monitoring sites, the test is passed.

Modeling system - This is a group of models used to predict ambient ozone and/or PM2.5

concentrations. The group includes an emissions model which converts countywide emission information

into gridded speciated emissions which vary diurnally and reflect environmental conditions. It also

includes a meteorological model which provides gridded meteorological outputs and an air

chemistry/deposition model which takes information provided by the emissions and meteorological

models and uses it to develop gridded predictions of hourly pollutant concentrations.

Relative response factor (RRF) - The ratio of predicted ozone and/or PM2.5 concentrations averaged

over multiple days near a monitoring site with future emissions to corresponding predictions obtained

with current emissions.


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