51 In practice, however, most 1-hour ozone modeling applications using the 1991

guidance tended to focus almost entirely on meeting the three statistical "goals" for bias, error,

and accuracy at the expense of more diagnostic evaluation.

In summary, we continue to believe that for ozone, PM2.5, and regional haze; 1) there

should be no bright line performance criteria; 2) the evaluation of statistical performance

measures should be compared to current and past modeling applications; and 3) statistical

measures should be used in conjunction with diagnostic tests and other qualitative analyses to

assess overall model performance.


Abt Associates, (2003), “Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP),

User’s Manual: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/ecas/benmodels.html.

ABT Associates, (2007), “Model Attainment Test Software (MATS) User’s Manual”.

Air Quality Management Work Group, (2005), “Recommendations to the Clean Air Advisory

Committee: Air Quality Management Work Group, Phase 1 and Next Steps”, available at


Ansari, A.S., and S.N. Pandis, (1998), “Response of Inorganic PM to Precursor Concentrations”,

Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 2706-2714.

Appel, W., S. Howard, R. Gilliam, and S. Phillips, (2005), “The Atmospheric Model Evaluation

Tool: Air Quality Module”, 4th Annual CMAS Models-3 Users' Conference, September

26-28, 2005, Chapel Hill, NC.

Arnold, J.R., R.L. Dennis, and G.S. Tonnesen, (2003), “Diagnostic Evaluation of Numerical Air

Quality Models with Specialized Ambient Observations; Testing the Community


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