Models such as CMAQ expect (1) a 3–D emissions input file, for which the elevated

plume rise has already been calculated and (2) a separate optional PinG emissions file. Emissions

modelers may optionally specify which sources to treat as elevated and PinG. Since the

emissions model must calculate plume rise in advance, it must use meteorological data such as

temperature, pressure and wind speeds. For the sake of consistency, the meteorological data that

is used in calculating plume rise is usually the same as what is used by the air quality model.

Mobile Source Modeling Mobile source emissions modeling takes two primary approaches.

The first approach is to compute emissions from VMT and emission factors from the MOBILE

model prior to use by an emissions model. The second approach is to allow an emissions model,

such as SMOKE, to drive the MOBILE model using gridded meteorology data. Many more

assumptions must be made about using average temperatures in the first approach, since

emissions are calculated on an annual total, monthly, or average-day basis and therefore do not

include the day-to-day temperature variability that the second approach includes. It is widely

assumed that the second approach is more robust for local-scale modeling, though we do not

recommend one approach over the other. States/Tribes are encouraged to choose an approach

that gives sufficient model performance for their attainment demonstration modeling.

Quality Assurance The third additional emissions modeling topic we have summarized here is

emissions modeling quality assurance (QA). A brief synopsis of appropriate quality assurance

(QA) approaches for emissions modeling is available in Section 2.19 of the SMOKE manual

( The purpose of QA

for emissions modeling is to ensure that the inventories are correctly processed using the

information the modeler intended. (It is assumed here that the inventory itself has already been

QA’d through inventory QA procedures, as referenced in Section 17.3.) Emissions modeling QA

includes such activities as reviewing log files for errors and warnings and addressing problems;

comparing emissions between each of the processing stages (e.g., data import, speciation,

temporal allocation) to ensure mass is conserved; checking that the correct speciation, temporal


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