Agricultural Ammonia Emissions- Ammonia emissions from agricultural operations are

typically estimated using standalone models. A commonly used model to estimate ammonia is

the Carnegie Mellon University Ammonia Model ( A promising

model that is under development is the CONCEPT Farm Model (


17.5 Are there Other Emissions Modeling Issues?

In addition to the general emissions modeling steps and the biogenic emissions modeling,

there are several other issues of which the air quality modeler should be aware. These are:

• Elevated point sources

• Advanced approaches for mobile source modeling

• Quality assurance

In the remainder of this section, we briefly address each of these issues.

Elevated Point Sources Point sources need to be assigned to an appropriate model layer40 (the

vertical modeling dimension). Depending on the air quality model that is being used, different

emissions modeling steps can be taken. Models such as UAM-V and CAMX, expect input

emissions files separately for layer-1 emissions and elevated point-source emissions.

Additionally, elevated point sources may be flagged for treatment with a plume-in-grid (PinG)

approach. For these models, emissions modelers must supply a criteria for specifying which point

sources will be treated as elevated and as PinG sources. In this case, the air quality model

calculates the plume rise of the point source emissions when the model is run.

40Point sources generally comprise most of the elevated emissions (above layer 1),

although other area sources, such as fires and aircraft, may also have emissions assigned to

elevated layers.


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