all sectors are then combined before being used by an air quality model. In this section, we will

provide information on several emissions models and summarize some additional issues that are

key for emissions modeling.

Emissions models Several emissions models are available for use in SIPs. While no single

model has been specifically created for all situations of SIP development, each model is

generally capable of performing the temporal, chemical, and spatial allocation steps as well as

various other steps. Users of these models are responsible for ensuring that the emissions

processing steps are transforming the emission inventories as intended and are not changing the

emissions in any unexpected way. The models each have different capabilities, limitations, and

nuances. Therefore, when choosing an emissions model, it is worthwhile to discuss the choice

with the developers of these systems and/or with EPA to establish which model is best for the

specific application.

Currently there are three main emissions models being used to process emissions for

input into photochemical grid models and a fourth model that is under construction at the time

that this document was written. They are: Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE);

Emissions Modeling System (EMS-2001); and Emissions Preprocessor System - Version 2.5

(EPS 2.5) and version 3.0 (EPS-3). The Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool

(CONCEPT) is under development by the Regional Planning Organizations.


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