modeling results can be increased if good agreement is shown with air quality measurements

aloft. The most important of these measurements are ozone, NOy, NO, NO2, as well as several

relatively stable species like CO and selected VOC species. Measurements of SO2 may also be

helpful for identifying presence of plumes from large combustion sources.

Measurements of altitude, temperature, water vapor, winds and pressure are also useful.

Continuous wind measurements, made aloft in several locations, are especially important. They

provide additional data to “nudge” meteorological model fields, but more importantly also allow

for construction of more detailed conceptual models of local ozone formation (Stehr, 2004).

For example, measurements of aloft winds and temperatures from lower atmosphere radar

profilers can detect low level jets and be used to infer mixing depths. This information can be

used to evaluate meteorological and air quality model outputs. This provides greater assurance

that the air quality model correctly reflects the configuration of sources contributing to ozone


Special Studies. Over the last 20 years, many States have embarked upon short term

special studies to examine both ozone and PM issues. Data collected from special studies can be

used to make improvements in the conceptual model of ozone and/or PM formation and to

improve the inputs to models. The results of current modeling can be examined to determine the

largest sources of uncertainty. This information can be used to design special studies in an effort

to collect data that might allow future improvements in emissions, meteorological, and air

quality modeling. Examples of special studies include the Central California Ozone Study

(CCOS) (, California Regional Particulate Air

Quality Study (CRPAQS) (, Southern

California Ozone Study (SCOS) (, Texas Air

Quality Study (TexAQS) and TexAQS II

(, Northern

Front Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS) ( , and various

NARSTO sponsored field studies ( ).


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