modeling results can be increased if good agreement is shown with air quality measurements
aloft. The most important of these measurements are ozone, NOy, NO, NO2, as well as several
relatively stable species like CO and selected VOC species. Measurements of SO2 may also be
helpful for identifying presence of plumes from large combustion sources.
Measurements of altitude, temperature, water vapor, winds and pressure are also useful.
Continuous wind measurements, made aloft in several locations, are especially important. They
provide additional data to “nudge” meteorological model fields, but more importantly also allow
for construction of more detailed conceptual models of local ozone formation (Stehr, 2004).
For example, measurements of aloft winds and temperatures from lower atmosphere radar
profilers can detect low level jets and be used to infer mixing depths. This information can be
used to evaluate meteorological and air quality model outputs. This provides greater assurance
that the air quality model correctly reflects the configuration of sources contributing to ozone
Special Studies. Over the last 20 years, many States have embarked upon short term
special studies to examine both ozone and PM issues. Data collected from special studies can be
used to make improvements in the conceptual model of ozone and/or PM formation and to
improve the inputs to models. The results of current modeling can be examined to determine the
largest sources of uncertainty. This information can be used to design special studies in an effort
to collect data that might allow future improvements in emissions, meteorological, and air
quality modeling. Examples of special studies include the Central California Ozone Study
(CCOS) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/airways/CCOS/CCOS.htm), California Regional Particulate Air
Quality Study (CRPAQS) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/airways/crpaqs/publications.htm), Southern
California Ozone Study (SCOS) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/scos/scos.htm), Texas Air
Quality Study (TexAQS) and TexAQS II
Front Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS) (http://www.nfraqs.colostate.edu/) , and various
NARSTO sponsored field studies (http://www.narsto.org/section.src?SID=9 ).
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