For the purposes of estimating other primary PM2.5 for SMAT, all measured non-carbon

mass that is not organic in nature (not associated with sulfate and/or nitrate) should be counted.

As with the other PM2.5 components measured on the FRM filter, there is uncertainty associated

with this estimate. The “crustal” or “fine soil” definition from IMPROVE can be used to

estimate other primary PM2.5

42 or an alternative formula can be defined which better estimates

the urban nature of the FRM measurements. The IMPROVE definition of “fine soil” accounts

for the typical crustal components (and attached mass) that would be expected in remote Class I

areas. Fine soil is represented as five elements (Al, Si, Fe, Ti, and Ca) with coefficients to

represent various oxides and material which may be attached to or associated with the major

elements. In urban areas, inorganic PM which is not elemental carbon, or associated with sulfate

or nitrate, may come from many sources such as re-suspended dust or industrial sources (stack or

fugitives). It is generally “crustal” in nature (dominated by silicon), but urban PM is more likely

to contain heavy metals and industrial components.

Although the composition of inorganic PM may differ between urban and rural (remote)

areas, we recommend using an equation similar to the IMPROVE fine soil equation to estimate

other primary PM2.5 for the PM2.5 attainment test. The recommended equation is suggested by

(Frank, 2006) and uses only four elements. The equation removes aluminum (and accounts for

associated mass by increasing the coefficient for Si), due to the fact that aluminum is often

missing from the speciation measurements. This allows for more complete data.



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