describes the recommended treatment for each of the components.

Retained Nitrate Mass

The first step in the procedure for identifying FRM mass components is to estimate the

retained nitrate mass on the FRM filters. The FRM does not capture all of the semi-volatile

components of the ambient air, such as ammonium nitrate. The retained amount of nitrate ion,

however, can be accurately estimated by a simple thermodynamic model that involves 24-hr

ambient nitrate speciation concentrations (as measured by a standard speciation sampler using a

nylon filter preceded by a HNO3 denuder) together with hourly ambient temperature and

humidity. Atmospheric nitrates are higher during the cooler months. Retention on the FRM is

also higher during the cooler months and essentially all the nitrates are lost during the summer.

The retention does not appear to depend on ambient NH3 or HNO3. More NO3 is retained at

low temperatures and high humidity which varies by sampling location and time of year.

Because nitrate retention varies by site and season, an ammonium nitrate equilibrium

model can be used to predict the amount of nitrates retained on the FRM Teflon filter. As used

by Hering (Hering, 1999; Zhang, 1992),

delta NO3 (ug/m3)= 745.7/TR* 1/24* E (Ki

½) [5.2]

i=1

where delta NO3 is the amount of volatilized nitrate mass, TR is the reference temperature for the

sampled air volume in degrees Kelvin and Ki is the dissociation constant for ammonium nitrate

evaluated at the ambient temperature for hour i. The nitrate loss can be predicted for each day,

based on hourly temperature and relative humidity data. The SMAT analysis for CAIR used

National Weather Service temperature and relative humidity data for the closest station. Other

sources of meteorological data may also be appropriate. Further details on the nitrate loss

calculations can be found in (Frank, 2006).

Ammonium Associated with Sulfates and Retained Nitrates

To determine the mass associated with nitrates, we first assume

 

 

n651 - n652 - n653 - n654 - n655 - n656 - n657 - n658 - n659 - n660 - n661 - n662 - n663 - n664 - n665 - n666 - n667 - n668 - n669 - n670 - n671 - n672 - n673 - n674 - n675 - n676 - n677 - n678 - n679 - n680 - n681 - n682 - n683 - n684 - n685 - n686 - n687 - n688 - n689 - n690 - n691 - n692 - n693 - n694 - n695 - n696 - n697 - n698 - n699 - n700

 

   Flag of Portugal 

 english:

 castellano: DISPER CUSTIC DESCAR RADIA    italiano:     

 

 français:    português:  

 

deutsch:

 

 

 

deutsch: DIS CUS  DES  RAD

castellano: DIS CUS DES  RAD   english: DIS CUS DES RAD  

 

 português: DIS CUS DES RAD   italiano:   DIS CUS  DES RAD

 

français:  DIS CUS DES RAD