2006). This characterization of PM2.5 mass also reflects “other” primary inorganic PM2.5 and

other minor constituents. Frank (2006) terms this approach “sulfate, adjusted nitrate, derived

water, inferred carbonaceous material balance approach (SANDWICH)”. The resulting

characterization provides a complete mass balance. It does not have any unknown mass which is

sometimes presented as the difference between measured PM2.5 mass and the characterized

chemical components derived from routine speciation measurements. The recommended SMAT

characterizations should yield more accurate assessments of future PM2.5 concentrations as

measured by FRM monitors.

5.1.4 Recommended Treatment of Species Data

As noted above, special treatment of species component mass is recommended in the

SMAT methodology. The goal is to reconstruct the measured species components so that they

add up to the measured FRM mass. This concept can generally be represented by the following


RCFMFRM = [Ammoniated Sulfate Mass] + [Retained Nitrate Mass] + [Retained Carbonaceous

Mass] + [Other Primary PM2.5 ] + [Other Components] [5.1]

In the above characterization, RCFM equals reconstructed fine mass and all of the listed

chemical components reflect those retained during sampling and equilibration on the FRM’s

Teflon filter. Sulfate and nitrate mass include associated ammonium which may be different than

assumed ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate compounds. Also, sulfates, nitrates and

carbonaceous mass includes particle bound water associated with these hygroscopic aerosols. In

this characterization, other primary PM2.5 mass is intended to be a more general term that

includes fine soil, and oxides that result from other PM emissions. The following section



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