defensible lag structures and provided a lag structure that could be assumed until additional

research has been completed. See Chapter 5 of the PM RIA for more detail on assumed lag

structures for PM2.5-related premature mortality (

Chapter%205--Benefits.pdf). Some example lag structures from the PM RIA are shown in

Figures 6-1 and 6-2 below. Currently, BenMAP does not have the capability to do this type of

discounting, so you must discount outside of BenMAP.

Note: Discounting is not necessary for ozone-related premature mortality because it occurs

within the analysis year.

7.1.3 Overview of Pooling

For many of the health endpoints (e.g., mortality), BenMAP contains many different functions

from different studies that you could choose to include in your configuration. Combining data

from several comparable studies in order to analyze them together is often referred to as metaanalysis.

For a number of reasons, it is often impractical or impossible to combine the original

data sets. Combining the results of studies provides a second-best way to synthesize

information. This is referred to as pooling.

BenMAP allows the pooling of incidence changes predicted by several studies for the same

pollutant-health endpoint group combination. It also allows the pooling of the corresponding

study-specific estimates of monetary benefits. See the appendix on Uncertainty & Pooling for

more detail on the pooling options available in BenMAP.


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