Asthma exacerbation

Acute bronchitis

Acute respiratory symptoms (minor restricted activity days)

Lower respiratory symptoms

Upper respiratory symptoms


Chronic bronchitis

Chronic asthma

A review of the literature revealed a range of income elasticity estimates that varied across the

studies and according to the severity of health endpoint. Table 4-12 summarizes the income

elasticity estimates found in BenMAP to adjust minor health effects, severe health effects and

premature mortality. Here we have provided a lower-, upper- and central-estimate for each type

of health endpoint.

2. Calculating changes in future income

The next input to the WTP adjustment is annual changes in future income. To estimate changes in

future income, EPA used the Standard & Poor’s projections of future changes in Gross Domestic

Product (GDP) occurring after the year 2010. EPA then divided the projected change in GDP by

the Woods & Poole projected change in total US population to produce an estimate of the future

GDP per capita.

3. Calculating changes in WTP

The income elasticity estimates from Table 4-12 and the estimated changes in future income may

then be used to estimate changes in future WTP for each health endpoint. The adjustment formula

follows four steps:



n301 - n302 - n303 - n304 - n305 - n306 - n307 - n308 - n309 - n310 - n311 - n312 - n313 - n314 - n315 - n316 - n317 - n318 - n319 - n320 - n321 - n322 - n323 - n324 - n325 - n326 - n327 - n328 - n329 - n330 - n331 - n332 - n333 - n334 - n335 - n336 - n337 - n338 - n339 - n340 - n341 - n342 - n343 - n344 - n345 - n346 - n347 - n348 - n349 - n350


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