Unit Value. A unit value is the estimated mean value of avoiding a single case of a particular

health effect.

Valuation Function. Valuation functions are used by BenMAP to estimate the economic values

of changes in the incidence of health effects. These are selected within an Aggregation, Pooling,

and Valuation Configuration (APV Configuration).

VNA (Voronoi Neighbor Averaging). An algorithm used by BenMAP to interpolate air

quality monitoring data to an unmonitored location. BenMAP first identifies the set of monitors

that best “surround” the center of the population grid cell, and then takes an inverse-distance

weighted average of the monitoring values. This is discussed in detail in Appendix B.

WTP (Willingness to Pay). The willingness of individuals to pay for a good, such as a

reduction in the risk of illness. In general, economists tend to view an individual’s WTP for a

improvement in environmental quality as the appropriate measure of the value of a risk reduction.

An individual’s willingness-to-accept (WTA) compensation for not receiving an improvement is

also a valid measure. However, WTP is generally considered to be a more readily available and

conservative measure of benefits.



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