income. Generally, an increase in real income implies an increase in the willingness to pay
Interpolation.The process of estimating the air quality level in an unmonitored area by using
one or more nearby air quality monitors. BenMAP uses two types of interpolation procedures:
one is to simply choose the closest monitor, the other is to use a technique called Voronoi
Neighbor Averaging. These interpolation methods are discussed in more detail in Appendix B.
Lat/Long. Latitude and longitude information to specify the geographic coordinates of a spatial
location. The CMAQ model data are usually provided for each grid cell identified by the latitude
and longitude of the grid cell’s center point. Latitude identifies the north-to-south location of a
point on the Earth. Latitude can be defined precisely as the angle between the vertical at a
location, and the equatorial plane of the Earth. Longitude identifies the east to west location of a
point on the Earth, by measuring the angular distance from the Greenwich meridian (or Prime
meridian, where longitude is 0), along the equator.
Latin Hypercube.A series of points generated by using specified percentiles in a given
distribution, such as that of a health impact coefficient. It is a short-cut method designed to
represent a distribution, while at the same time saving on computation time. For example, when
using 20 Latin Hypercube points, BenMAP would use the 2.5th, 7.5th, 12.5th, ..., and 97.5th points
from the distribution. The Latin Hypercube points are used when combining the results of
different health impact functions (discussed in Chapter 7), and in presenting confidence intervals
for the incidence estimates (discussed in Chapter 8).
Layer.In geographic information systems (GIS), a layer represents a logical separation of
mapped data usually representing a theme, such as political boundaries, roads, ozone data,
number of mortalities avoided, etc. In BenMAP, “active layer” refers to the top-most layer with
which the user is currently working.
Layer Statistics.The summary statistics that correspond to the active layer in BenMAP. For
example, "mean", "standard deviation" or "max" of PM2.5 air quality grid.
Micrograms per Cubic Meter (μg/m3). The unit of measure for particulate matter in the
NAAQS. This unit represents the mass of PM found in a cubic meter of air.
Model Data.Pollutant concentration data that are generated by running an air quality model
such as CMAQ. This is different from “monitor data,” which are based upon measurements.
Model Delta. Differences in pollutant concentrations from applying an air quality model (e.g.
CMAQ) for two different emissions scenarios – a baseline scenario and an emissions control
Modeling.Estimating air pollution levels using air quality models. The EPA website discusses a
wide range of air quality models:http://www.epa.gov/scram001/aqmindex.htm and at http://www.
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