income. Generally, an increase in real income implies an increase in the willingness to pay

(WTP).

Interpolation. The process of estimating the air quality level in an unmonitored area by using

one or more nearby air quality monitors. BenMAP uses two types of interpolation procedures:

one is to simply choose the closest monitor, the other is to use a technique called Voronoi

Neighbor Averaging. These interpolation methods are discussed in more detail in Appendix B.

Lat/Long. Latitude and longitude information to specify the geographic coordinates of a spatial

location. The CMAQ model data are usually provided for each grid cell identified by the latitude

and longitude of the grid cell’s center point. Latitude identifies the north-to-south location of a

point on the Earth. Latitude can be defined precisely as the angle between the vertical at a

location, and the equatorial plane of the Earth. Longitude identifies the east to west location of a

point on the Earth, by measuring the angular distance from the Greenwich meridian (or Prime

meridian, where longitude is 0), along the equator.

Latin Hypercube. A series of points generated by using specified percentiles in a given

distribution, such as that of a health impact coefficient. It is a short-cut method designed to

represent a distribution, while at the same time saving on computation time. For example, when

using 20 Latin Hypercube points, BenMAP would use the 2.5th, 7.5th, 12.5th, ..., and 97.5th points

from the distribution. The Latin Hypercube points are used when combining the results of

different health impact functions (discussed in Chapter 7), and in presenting confidence intervals

for the incidence estimates (discussed in Chapter 8).

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