incidence of disease in the population exposed to that risk factor. The higher the correlation the

more certain the association, but it cannot prove the causation.

FIPS Code. Federal Information Processing Standard codes. Each state in the U.S. is assigned

a 2-digit code. For example, “01” refers to Alaska, “37” refers to North Carolina, and “56” refers

to Wyoming.

Fixed Effects Pooling. Fixed effects pooling is used to combine two or more distributions

(represented by Latin Hypercube points) into a single new distribution. Fixed effects pooling

assumes that there is a single true underlying relationship between these component distributions,

and that differences among estimated parameters are the result of sampling error. Weights for

the pooling are generated via inverse variance weighting, thus giving more weight to the input

distributions with lower variance and less weight to the input distributions with higher variance.

Fixed Radius. An air quality monitor interpolation option that uses all monitors within a fixed

radius (or distance) of a given point of interest. All monitors are used and weighted by their

relative distance.

GIS. Geographic Information System. A GIS is a system of hardware and software used for

storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data.

Grid Cell. One of the many geographic, or spatial components within Grid Definition.

Grid Definition. A BenMAP Grid Definition provides a method of breaking a geographic

region into areas of interest (Grid Cells) in conducting an analysis. This can be done in two ways

- by loading a Shapefile (a particular type of Geographic Information System file) or by

specifying a regularly shaped grid pattern. These are referred to as Shapefile Grid Definitions

and Regular Grid Definitions, respectively. Typically a Shapefile Grid Definition is used when

the areas of interest are political boundaries with irregularly shaped borders, while a Regular Grid

Definition is used when the areas of interest are uniformly shaped rectangles.

Growth Income Adjustment. See Income Growth Adjustment.

Health Impact Function. A health impact function calculates the change in adverse health

effects associated with a change in exposure to air pollution. Based on a C-R function, a typical

health impact function has inputs specifying the air quality metric and pollutant, the age, race and

ethnicity of the population affected, and the incidence rate of the adverse health effect.

Incidence. The total number of adverse health effects in a geographic region in a given unit

time. In BenMAP, this is the total number of adverse health effects avoided due to a change in

air pollution.

Incidence Rate. The background rate of a health effect per person in a given geographic region

(a.k.a. background incidence rate). The average number of adverse health effects per person

per unit of time, typically a day or a year.

Income Growth Adjustment. Adjusting certain valuation functions to reflect increases in real



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