The present situation varies significantly between the different Member States, which

means that the starting point differs. In addition the priority of effects are different

within different EU regions. For example, the effects on ecosystems may be most

important in the north and the health effects more important in the southern part of

Europe. It has to be emphasised that the adverse effects, costs and benefits and the

possible actions against pollution for the different pollutants are closely linked and

therefore multi-pollutant, multi-effect perspectives are necessary.

Because the limit values based on effects will be exceeded in many areas of the EU it

should be decided, which levels of effects are acceptable and for how long. However,

it is recommended that the time of compliance should be based on the least cost time

schedule. An estimate of the sensitivity of the time schedule should be made, e.g. by

cost estimates on different scenarios.


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