Costs for lack of action can be calculated from the effect quantification in 4.3. At

present we have no data at all on cost for damage due to NO2. We believe it is

possible to estimate the costs of health effects; hospital care for certain diseases, costs

for medicine, cost for absence due to sickness. In a Swedish study (Leksell & Löfgren

1995) using the Contingent Valuation Method, CVM, for estimating costs concluded

that the damage from inhaling various pollutants could be estimated at $0.50 per

milligram inhaled. It was seen in the interview study, included in the Swedish cost

study, that people put a higher price on pollution in city centres than in the outskirts or

the countryside. The higher the concentrations, the more value they were inclined to

put on a reduction. The price put on emissions of NOx and VOCs in Gothenburg was

$6.00 per kg. In the city centres, where the exposure was highest, a ten times higher

price was set: $60 per kg.


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