The long term effects of increased NO2 concentrations in the form of decreased lung

functions are not taken into account in the above study. The WHO estimated that 17 to

60 million people might suffer from a decrease in lung function of 2 to 5 percent. No

estimates are available of the associated costs.

Furthermore, NOx emissions indirectly contribute to ground level ozone. Any

reductions in NOx emissions to meet NO2 limit values might then indirectly lead to

additional benefits; or reduced damage costs, due to reductions in ozone

concentrations. Ozdemiroglu and Pearce (1995) state that the short term health effects

due to elevated ozone levels lead to 0,5 to 4 million cases of throat and eye irritation

54

in children per year. Using a £5 estimate for a mild symptom day they estimate the

damage costs at £2.3 to £20 million. The willingness-to-pay for avoiding this damage

might be higher in reality because of altruistic motives.

 

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