One Europe wide study assessed the costs of health damage due to NO2

concentrations on human health (Ozdemiroglu and Pearce, 1995). This study took the

work of the WHO, cited in chapter 2, as the basis. The WHO study suggested that at

least 21 million people, living in urban areas, were, at the end of the eighties, exposed

to NO2 concentrations exceeding the daily WHO AQG (of 1987) (UNECE, 1995).

The most likely effect on health associated with these elevated concentrations in an

increase in respiratory symptom requiring medical visits. the WHO study indicated

that for the cities where air quality data were available, 17000 to 19000 incidences per

year of LRI (Lower Respiratory Illness) would occur. Assuming a similar exposure

pattern across Europe (East and West) as in the cities with data, 58000 to 99000

incidences would occur. Ozdemiroglu and Pearce (1995) translated these physical

impacts in monetary terms on the basis of a review of studies that analysed the

willingness-to-pay of people to avoid an emergency room visit or a symptom day. A

mild symptom day was valued a £ 5 and a severe one, requiring a medical visit, at £

155. The results are summarised in Table 4.3.


n151 - n152 - n153 - n154 - n155 - n156 - n157 - n158 - n159 - n160 - n161 - n162 - n163 - n164 - n165 - n166 - n167 - n168 - n169 - n170 - n171 - n172 - n173 - n174 - n175 - n176 - n177 - n178 - n179 - n180 - n181 - n182 - n183 - n184 - n185 - n186 - n187 - n188 - n189 - n190 - n191 - n192 - n193 - n194 - n195 - n196 - n197 - n198 - n199 - n200


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