The cost for lack of action includes the cost for existing damages. The cost for lack of

action are, in principles the benefits foregone or the benefits that could have been

obtained, if action was undertaken. These benefits could consist of decreased

morbidity, i.e. respiratory illness, and reductions in the damage to buildings and

ecosystems. These also include an estimate of the situation if no actions are taken, i.e.

business as usual. The development of the economy necessitates increases in traffic,

transport, energy use, industrial production etc..

The costs of NO2 damage to health and the environment are more difficult to estimate

than e.g. the costs associated with SO2 effects on materials and crop loss due to O3

exposure. This is due to the fact that NO2 effects have been difficult to separate from

effects due to SO2 and O3.


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