Despite our inability to evaluate the benefits in a quantitative way, it is possible to list
the benefits qualitatively. Under conditions of reduced NO2 levels in urban
atmosphere, a lower rate of accumulation of nitrate by building surfaces would be
expected, which in turn, should lead to less corrosion by HNO3 and limit any role that
nitrogen oxides might play in the oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 on the urban fabric.
Secondly a lower rate of direct damage would be expected to sensitive materials such
as paper and cloth from nitrogen oxides indoors. Finally, less nitrogen would be
available as a nutrient to micro-flora and thus lower rates of biological growth and
disfigurement of buildings could be expected. Reduction of emissions of NOx from
traffic and point sources will also result in lower NO2 concentrations in rural areas.
Even in areas, where no exceedances are seen of the limit value to protect vegetation,
there is a beneficial effect due to decreased deposition. Quantification of effects of
NO2 and nitrogen deposition, acidification as well as eutrophication of lakes, the sea,
crops and ecosystems are dealt with within the mapping of critical loads and levels.
This was carried out to be a basis for the negotiations on NOx emissions reductions
within the new NOx protocol. In the Integrated Assessment Modelling however, only
abatement costs are included and not the benefits of reduction. Results from Integrated
Assessment Modelling within UNECE in connection with the second NOx protocol is
expected to be available this summer.
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