Changes in a given fuel property may lower the emission of one pollutant but may

increase those of others. In some cases, engines in different categories, such as heavy

duty and light duty vehicles, have disparate responses to changes in fuel properties.

Thus, no simple answers exist but the basis for the most cost-effective combination in

terms of improved vehicle technology and improved fuel properties may be identified.

The cost effectiveness methodology and study was developed by consultants to the

commission, using cost data provided by the Oil and Motor industries. It is intended to

provide the basis for the Commission’s proposal for post 2000 vehicle exhaust

emission requirements, and should also be used in this exercise.

Based on the NOx-protocol, decisions on reduction of the NOx-emission in the

European countries have been taken. Cost estimates for technical measures to control

NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources are currently available (Amman

and Klaasen, 1995). Problems in estimating cost might occur for non-technical


measures such as road pricing. since data are scarce. More cost estimates will be made

for different source categories in the different countries. This will also include nontraffic

sources, e.g. power plants, space heating systems, industrial plants etc. These

estimates can be used as an input for evaluation of the cost implications of the new

NO2 -limit values.


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