Changes in a given fuel property may lower the emission of one pollutant but may
increase those of others. In some cases, engines in different categories, such as heavy
duty and light duty vehicles, have disparate responses to changes in fuel properties.
Thus, no simple answers exist but the basis for the most cost-effective combination in
terms of improved vehicle technology and improved fuel properties may be identified.
The cost effectiveness methodology and study was developed by consultants to the
commission, using cost data provided by the Oil and Motor industries. It is intended to
provide the basis for the Commission’s proposal for post 2000 vehicle exhaust
emission requirements, and should also be used in this exercise.
Based on the NOx-protocol, decisions on reduction of the NOx-emission in the
European countries have been taken. Cost estimates for technical measures to control
NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources are currently available (Amman
and Klaasen, 1995). Problems in estimating cost might occur for non-technical
measures such as road pricing. since data are scarce. More cost estimates will be made
for different source categories in the different countries. This will also include nontraffic
sources, e.g. power plants, space heating systems, industrial plants etc. These
estimates can be used as an input for evaluation of the cost implications of the new
NO2 -limit values.
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