The concentration of NO2in all temporal and spatial scales is determined by the total

emission in the region, dispersion of pollutants, deposition of NO2, many complicated

chemical transformations and by the long range transport of nitrogen compounds.

In rural areas, far from air pollution sources the temporal and spatial variations of the

NO2 concentrations are relatively small. In these areas the limit value for protection

of vegetation is important, i.e. the annual average concentration. However, for

protection of vegetation, deposition in relation to critical load will often be even more

critical. There is no simple linear relationship between the emission of nitrogen

compounds between regions and the concentration of NO2 in the air. However,

advanced large scale models such as the EMEP model, based on data from European

emission inventories, meteorological data and the atmospheric chemical and physical

processes, have been established and can be used to estimate the concentrations of

NO2 (and O3) in rural areas (Barrett et al. 1995), (Simpson 1992), (Simpson 1993).

In urban background areas where local sources have a more direct impact on the NO2

concentration, no linear relationship between the emission of nitrogen oxides and the

NO2 concentration here either. Urban background is often representative for

residential areas and thus for human exposure; the long term as well as the short term

limit values may be critical.


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