To support the work of the Working Groups and the Commission, an "Economic

Evaluation of Air Quality Targets for Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Fine and

Suspended Particulate Matter and Lead" was initiated. The study was not finished

before this position paper was prepared, and so its results and conclusions have not

been taken into account in this chapter. The chapter is therefore based on the material

collected by the Working Group, and on the knowledge and experience of the Group


Evidence in chapter 2 suggest that current concentrations exceed the proposed limit

values in different areas in Europe, and it is necessary to assess the effect of planned

measures to determine what abatement strategies may be required to meet the limit

values. Comparison of the present air pollution situation with an of the impact of

current (and planned) legislation will enable the development of the new strategy.

Consideration of different Member States (chapter 1.4 and Annex IV) current

pollution levels and exceedances of recommended limit values indicates that further

reductions in NO2 levels of approximately 30%, are needed in many large urban

areas. From these data it is only possible to give an uncertain estimate on the need for

NOx emission reductions. A better estimate can only be made by more detailed model

calculations taking dispersion, deposition and atmospheric chemistry into


The first NOx protocol will end in 1997, and will be followed by a second. The

freezing or reductions of emissions agreed under the first protocol are not yet fulfilled

for all signatory States. The next protocol will require more extensive reductions

based mainly on the needs for a decrease of the nitrogen load on ecosystems. NOx

reductions must be achieved in urban as well as in rural areas in order to reduce total

emissions. These reductions will also be beneficial for reduction of the NO2

concentrations in urban air.


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