The residential sites, which are important for estimation of exposure of the population,

often coincide with the urban background sites, but may also be influenced

significantly by point sources or traffic.

The air pollution around industrial sites is regulated in many countries by local

authorities. It is not possible to determine the air quality around point sources and

possible exceedances of short term limit values are not possible to determine without

a large number of monitoring stations. The best way is to combine emission estimates

and dispersion modelling with measurements at a few sites.

In the street environment, measurements are performed near the building line and no

more than 5 meters from the carriageway. The pollution at street sites is defined by the

traffic characteristics (traffic density and composition, average speed etc.), the

buildings or other obstacles along the street and the orientation of the street. Sites

along highways through unbuilt and non sensitive areas are not relevant.

Measurements should be carried out at selected typical zones and a total description of

the exposure, e.g. of inhabitants should be carried out by model calculations.

For management purpose it is recommended that O3 and NO should be measured in

addition to NO2 at both rural and urban background sites in order to describe the

NO/NOx pollution.


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