Based on the above considerations it is recommended that the monitoring network for

urban sites should be planned to include five types of stations:

· Rural background sites for evaluation of pollution levels in rural and remote areas

caused by near-by large sources and/or remote sources, regional air pollution

including photochemical air pollution.

· Urban background, where all controlled pollutants are measured.

· Urban residential area sites, where pollutants of relevance for protection of health

are measured.

· Local Industrial sites near large industrial installations

· Local traffic sites, street sites, for evaluation of pollutants emitted directly from


The air pollution at rural/remote sites should be measured. The regional air pollution

can be measured at stations outside greater urban areas. It is in many countries

measured within the EMEP programme.

The urban background station is important, not only for producing information on

exceedances in the urban area. It can also measure other pollutants, and can produce

data relevant for the understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring

in urban air and for following air quality trends. For understanding of the processes it

is especially necessary to measure O3 at the sites.



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