quality modules applied to the plume parcels transported

with the winds in the Lagrangian frame...

A three-dimensional diagnostic wind model is

used to calculate the spatially and temporally

varying wind fields. Kinematic, blocking and

deflection, and thermodynamic effects are accounted

for through simple parameterizations. The wind model

is designed to generate wind fields within regions

with sparse data; thus, the validity of the wind

field is highly dependent on the quality of the

observations and their applicability to the

interpolation applied between the observations. Each

interpolation of the observed temperature, dew point,

and precipitation amounts contains an orographic

adjustment based on limited climatological data from

the Rocky Mountain region... Mixing height,

stability classification, friction velocity,

convective velocity, Monin-Obukhov length, and

surface pressure are all estimated at each grid cell

using appropriate algorithms with interpolated


The acid deposition/air quality modules treat

the plume parcels along their trajectories. The

height of the parcel can be set either as terrainfollowing

or reduced relative to the difference

between the elevation of the terrain at the parcel

location and elevation at the stack base...

There are three options for determining

dispersion rates. The use of the Pasquill-Gifford

dispersion rates provides the minimum dispersion.

The other options provide higher dispersion rates

that may be appropriate over regions of complex

terrain. The dry deposition algorithm is based on

the resistance approach. A dry deposition velocity

is calculated based on the land-use type at the plume

parcel location. The algorithm in the ARM3 is

comparable to those in other models that use this

approach. The wet deposition algorithm uses the

scavenging coefficient approach. The precipitation

rate for the grid cell containing the centroid of the

Lagrangian parcel is used...

Chemical transformation of SO and NO to sulfate 2 2

and nitrate can be calculated in the ARM3 using one

of two highly-parameterized options in the ARM3

model. They are the methods adopted from the RIVAD

[Regional Impact in Visibility and Acid Deposition

Model] and the MESOPUFF-II models...



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