Two models were selected for consideration for an interim
approach, the Acid Rain Mountain Mesoscale Model (ARM3) (Morris
et al., 1988) and the MESOPUFF-II model (Scire et al., 1984b).
The MESOPUFF-II model was considered by the EPA for inclusion
in its list of refined models in theGuideline, but was
subsequently suggested for inclusion only in Appendix B of the
Guideline, the section reserved for models which could be
considered for regulatory use, but not generically preferred.
The NPS has been evaluating the ARM3 for use in its program of
evaluating the impacts of air pollution in the national parks.
As part of this evaluation, they chose to compare some of the
ARM3 results against MESOPUFF-II because of MESOPUFF-II's
availability and its consideration by the EPA. These two
models both contain features considered desirable in a model
for use in long range transport to Class I areas, particularly
the ability to consider the chemical transformation of SO and2
NO to SO and NO and the removal of chemical species throughX 4 3
deposition. In addition, the ARM3 contains algorithms for
considering the effects of terrain on dispersion and on the
transport flow. Furthermore, both of these models have been
compared against other, similar models and have performed
somewhat better than those other models relative to measured
tracer data (Carhartet al., 1989; Moore et al., 1990).
The IWAQM recognizes that there are certain risks involved
with recommending an interim long range modeling approach.
From a regulatory perspective, it is generally desirable to use
an interim model which will yield somewhat higher impact
calculations than a more refined, preferred approach. In the
case of steady-state air quality models for example, this can
be relatively easily ensured because of the independence of the
concentration calculations from one hour to the next. In the
case of the Lagrangian long range transport models under
consideration here, the concentration calculations for a given
hour will be explicitly dependent on the spatially and
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