Prognostic models - These models simulate relevant atmospheric

physical processes while requiring minimal observational data.

Prognostic models require a specification of the synoptic-scale

flow. Reliability of these approaches is usually enhanced if

sufficient observations are available to "nudge" solutions closer

to observations. Since these models can simulate temperature

fields in addition to the wind field, it is possible to determine

stabilities and mixing heights, thus eliminating the need to

generate these from sparse observational data. Another significant

advantage is that interdependencies of various meteorological

inputs with one another are considered in prognostic models. A

major disadvantage is the extensive computational resources needed

to run a prognostic model. Additionally, the availability of

evaluated models and expertise needed to apply them for general

application with photochemical grid models is limited.

The ROM-UAM Interface System - This system can develop a UAM

gridded wind field from a diagnostically derived wind field used in

the ROM. Such a ROM-derived wind field can be applied for a UAM

domain that is nested within a ROM domain, provided ROM data are

available for identical episode periods. Use of ROM data has the

advantage of being easy to implement and also provides a

consistency between ROM model predictions used to specify UAM

boundary conditions and the corresponding wind fields. The ROM

data are based on an approximately 18 x 18 km horizontal grid cell

size. Thus, one disadvantage is that ROM gridded wind fields may

not sufficiently describe detailed features such as land/sea

circulations. A more finely resolved wind field may be obtained

by using the ROM-gridded winds as the initial wind field for the

UAM's Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM) preprocessor (see Reference 3).

This provides a means for mass consistency when using the ROM data

as boundary conditions in conjunction with another wind model.

 

 

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