subsequent analysis showed that the MM5 wind direction

was off for several hours on August 25 and MM5-predicted

PBL heights were about 30% too high on August 30

compared with the wind profiler measurements. The

persistent differences between the simulated and observed

concentrations at industrial and nearby sites demonstrate a

need for further study in the emissions uncertainty in the

HGA emissions inventories.


The CMAQ model offers fully-functional multiscale and

multi-pollutant air quality modeling capability by combining

several distinct modeling techniques. We recast the

governing atmospheric diffusion equation with a generalized

coordinate system to accommodate many different

meteorological coordinates and assumptions, including a

fully compressible atmosphere. The CMAQ model can be

configured to match the characteristics of the driving

meteorological models. For example, hydrostatic

meteorological models can be used to provide atmospheric

characterization for regional scale simulations, and nonhydrostatic

models can be used to simulate urban scale air

quality, especially when there are significant topographic

features. CMAQ uses a nesting capability, in addition to the

plume-in-grid technique, to refine grid resolutions, passing

the coarse-grid information to the nested fine-grid to fit the

target air quality problem. Generalized gas-phase chemistry

solvers, a linked aqueous reaction processor, and an aerosol

module provide the multi-pollutant capability. The modular

design allows exchange of science process modules and

experiments with different model configurations.

The CMAQ model system aims to realize the “one

atmosphere” approach to investigate various air quality

issues for regional and urban scales, including ozone,

particulate matter, acid deposition, and visibility. The

capabilities for simulating air toxics, such as mercury,


dioxins, and other gas-, aerosol-, and metal-phase air toxics

are now emerging in research versions of the CMAQ model.

In addition to the examples of model application and

evaluation discussed in this paper, other extensive CMAQ

model evaluation studies are underway or planned for the

future. We intend for a wider air quality modeling

community to assist us in providing new state-of-science

process modules for the CMAQ system to allow it to evolve



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