10.1 Applications to continental United States

With the recent changes in U.S. National Ambient Air

Quality Standards (NAAQS) to include daily and annual

fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 8-hr averaged ozone,

there is growing interest in the ability of air quality models

to simulate these pollutants across the U.S. The most recent

version (September 2003) of the CMAQ model was used to

perform continental U.S. (CONUS) scale applications for

two different time periods: 15 June – 16 July 1999 and 4

January – 19 February 2002. A winter period is included

here since PM2.5 is a year-round air quality issue for many

regions of the U.S., although ozone is principally a warmseason


Meteorological data were prepared for both seasonal

applications with the MM5 model [12] and were processed

by the MCIPv2.2 program for CMAQ model use. The July

1999 application used 32-km horizontal grid sizes and 30

vertical model layers extending to 104 Pascal. The winter

2002 application used 36-km horizontal grid sizes and 34

vertical model layers. The corresponding CMAQ model

grid used the same horizontal grid resolutions as MM5.

MM5’s meteorological data were converted to a 21-layer

vertical structure by the MCIP for CMAQ for the July 1999

application and 24 layers for CMAQ’s January 2002


Source emissions data were obtained from the 1999 EPA

National Emissions Inventory (NEI) [111] and processed

through the SMOKE emissions modeling system [24, 25] for

CMAQ’s use. Hourly gridded emissions of gas-phase SO2,

CO, NO, NO2, NH3, and VOC were included, as were

anthropogenic PM2.5 emissions subdivided into particulate

SO4, NO3, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC).

Mobile source emissions were processed using the

MOBILE5b model and biogenic source emissions were

estimated from the BEISv3.11; both models are incorporated

in the SMOKE system. VOC emissions were split into the

appropriate organic categories for the SAPRC-99 chemical

mechanism used in these CMAQ model applications. Initial

and boundary condition chemical data were set at relatively

clean tropospheric background levels. The CMAQ model

was run to produce hourly estimates of gas- and particlephase

chemical trace species for the four-week summer

period and six-week winter period.




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