The detailed mathematical formulation of the processes

treated in the PinG approach is documented in Gillani and

Godowitch [108]. The CMAQ/PinG processes were

implemented in the two key modeling components; the

plume dynamics model (PDM) processor and the PinG

module, which is embedded within the CCTM. The PDM

processor simulates plume rise, and generates the

vertical/horizontal dimensions and grid positions of a series

of moving plume sections released at hourly intervals from

the location of each MEPSE point source. The PDM data

file is used by the Lagrangian PinG module, which is fully

coupled with the Eulerian CCTM and is executed

concurrently with the grid model (Godowitch and Young

[109]). The PinG module treats the horizontal/vertical

dispersion of plume concentrations, entrainment of

background concentrations and horizontal eddy diffusion

(disp), emissions into the plume to account for the plume

chemistry effects of anthropogenic and biogenic surface

emissions (emis), plume chemistry to appropriately simulate

the chemical evolution within the plume (chem), and surface

dry deposition to account for the removal of pollutant within

the plume (dep) which can be expressed by


where mp is the concentration of the sub-grid plume (in

molar mixing ratio). Horizontal resolution across a plume

section is achieved with a contiguous array of attached

plume cells. Currently, each plume section is composed of

10 plume cells in addition to a left and a right boundary cell.

The plume boundary conditions, representing the ambient

background, are provided throughout the simulation by the

appropriate CCTM grid concentrations. Currently in PinG,

the plume cells represent a single vertical layer. Each plume

cell in a particular plume section has the same plume bottom

and a common top height. When the sub-grid scale phase of

the plume simulation has been completed, the PinG module

updates grid scale concentrations according to



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