isoprene mechanism. The one-product form lumps the

major products of isoprene degradation into a single species,

whereas the four-product mechanism represents major

isoprene degradation products by means of four products –

methacrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein’s PAN

analogue, and other lumped products. The CB4 isoprene

chemistry in CMAQ is an analogue of Carter’s one-product

form, whereas the SAPRC99 mechanism in CMAQ

incorporates the four-product version.

Aerosol extensions

Secondary atmospheric aerosols can be formed from both

inorganic and organic gaseous precursors. The major

inorganic precursors are H2SO4 vapor formed from SO2 and

HNO3 formed primarily from reactions involving NO2 and

N2O5. All of the mechanisms in CMAQ include gas-phase

chemical pathways for forming these inorganic aerosol

precursors. As discussed in section 8, CMAQ also includes

a heterogeneous pathway for converting N2O5 to HNO3.

Since the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway is expected to

predominate over the homogeneous gas-phase hydrolysis

reaction [82], the gas-phase hydrolysis reaction is omitted

whenever CMAQ is configured to include aerosol

formation. When aerosol formation is not simulated, the

gas-phase hydrolysis reaction is included. The formation of

secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere occurs

via the oxidation of organic compounds to form

semi-volatile gases that can subsequently condense on

particles. In CMAQ, the semi-volatiles can be formed via

the oxidation of five primary organic groups (alkanes,

cresol, high-yield aromatics, low-yield aromatics, and

terpenes). At present, production of SOA precursors from



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