This equation allows enhancement of photolysis rates above

the cloud due to the reflected radiation from the cloud. It

also includes a reaction-dependent coefficient ω

i, which

allows further enhancements above the cloud top (Chang et

al. [10]). Within the cloud, the cloud correction factor is a

simple linear interpolation of the below cloud factor at cloud

base to the above cloud factor at cloud top. Once computed,

the below, above, and within cloud factors are used to scale

the clear sky photolysis rates to account for the presence of

clouds. In the current implementation, all cloud types

(including clouds composed of ice crystals) are treated the

same way as described above.

7.2 Gas-phase Chemistry Mechanisms

Chemical reactions taking place in the gas-phase are

represented in AQMs by means of chemical kinetic

mechanisms. At present, the CMAQ system includes three

basic gas-phase chemical mechanisms that were originally

developed to address issues associated with urban and

regional scale ozone formation and acidic deposition—the

CB4 [Gery et al. [76], RADM2 [Stockwell et al. [77] and

SAPRC99 [44] mechanisms. Two variants of the RADM2

mechanism that have a more up-to-date and comprehensive

treatment of isoprene chemistry are also included.



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