diffusive than the Bott scheme, but can handle transport of

species with large spatial inhomogeneity and dynamic range

better because of the monotonic character of the algorithm.

The mass conservation characteristic of Eq. (19) is heavily

dependent on the quality of the wind data provided.

Dynamic assumptions of the meteorological model and the

application method of its numerical advection algorithms

(e.g., time splitting of 3-D advection into a sequence of 1-D

operators) influence the mass conservation characteristics of

the model. They can be a source of error in the species

continuity equation even in the absence of emissions. The

modules in the ADJCON class fix this operational error by

solving the following equation:


Here we want to emphasize that the artificial distinction of

advection modules between horizontal and vertical

processes is not adequate and that all three modules (HADV,

VADV, and ADJCON) should be considered as an integral

unit for solving the physical advection process of trace


6.2 Diffusion Processes

Turbulent diffusion only is modeled in the CCTM. The

concentration units used for horizontal and vertical turbulent

diffusion processes (i.e., HDIFF and VDIFF) are density ( ϕ


and molar mixing ratio (mi), respectively. We have chosen

mi as the generic concentration unit for the vertical diffusion

to coordinate with the emissions units in the data. Because

the ratios of molecular weights relative to air are constant,

equations for the vertical diffusion in molar mixing ratio are

mathematically equivalent to those in the mass mixing ratio,


Horizontal diffusion

When the turbulent flux terms are parameterized via the

gradient transport theory (K-theory), the horizontal diffusion

equation is given as (Byun et al. [56]):


n1051 - n1052 - n1053 - n1054 - n1055 - n1056 - n1057 - n1058 - n1059 - n1060 - n1061 - n1062 - n1063 - n1064 - n1065 - n1066 - n1067 - n1068 - n1069 - n1070 - n1071 - n1072 - n1073 - n1074 - n1075 - n1076 - n1077 - n1078 - n1079 - n1080 - n1081 - n1082 - n1083 - n1084 - n1085 - n1086 - n1087 - n1088 - n1089 - n1090 - n1091 - n1092 - n1093 - n1094 - n1095 - n1096 - n1097 - n1098 - n1099 - n1100


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