conservation equation in the generalized coordinates

suggested by Toon et al. [48]. Terms in Eq. (17) are

explicitly related to the modules corresponding to the

science processes in CMAQ:

(a) time rate of change of concentration (implemented

with fractional time step)

(b) horizontal advection

(c) vertical advection

(d) horizontal eddy diffusion

(e) vertical eddy diffusion

(f) production or loss from chemical reactions

(g) emissions

(h) cloud mixing and aqueous production or loss

(i) plume-in-grid process

(j) aerosol process

Note that the dry deposition process can be included in the

vertical diffusion process as a flux boundary condition at the

bottom of the model layer.


5.2 Modular Structure of the CMAQ CTM

CMAQ is structured to accommodate many different science

process modules that provide one-atmosphere and

community multiscale modeling capability. In a model with

the fractional time step approach, meteorological input

parameters are read in or interpolated at the so-called

synchronization time step at which a set of process modules

complete the concentration update before marching into the

next time increment. One of the distinctive features of

CMAQ as compared to other AQMs is the hierarchical

functional modularity of the science processor codes. By

making appropriate science modules available in the CMAQ



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