Area emissions are attributable to diffuse sources spread

over areas, such as agricultural fields, large open mining

operations, forests, and/or a combination of many point

sources which are too small and numerous to account for

individually (such as residences). Biogenic and mobile

source emissions are treated separately because they may be

modeled episodically using hourly meteorological data as

inputs. Biogenic emissions include natural emissions from

vegetation, soils, and lightning. Gaseous biogenic emissions

depend on temperature, solar radiation, and land cover type.

17

Hourly emission rates of isoprene, monoterpenes, other

VOCs, and soil NOx for each grid cell are estimated using

the Biogenic Emission Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3)

(Pierce et al. [45], Guenther et al. [46]). The biogenic

emission processing depends on ambient temperature, total

horizontal solar radiation flux, and land cover inputs.

BEIS3 applies emission flux factors to specific tree genera

emission species in accordance with the following equation:

Ei = Aj

j Σ

Ef Fij (S, T), (11)

where Ei is the emission rate for species i (e.g., isoprene,

monoterpene) in mole/sec for each cell, Aj is the area of

vegetation type j (m2) in a grid cell, Ef is the emission

factor (μg per m2 per hour), and Fij (S, T) is an

environmental factor to account for solar radiation S and

temperature T.

Emissions from roadway vehicles, aircraft, trains, shipping,

and off-road mobile equipment are termed as mobile source

emissions. Vehicular emissions generated from sources

other than roadway activities are usually included as area

sources in the emission inventories. In SMOKE, estimates

of gaseous and particulate on-road mobile source emissions,

and limited toxic emissions, are prepared on an hourly basis

by county or specific road segments (links) for periods of

interest, usually several days. Non-road mobile source

gaseous, particulate, and SO2 emissions are disaggregated

from annual area source inventories as a normal part of area

source emission modeling. The hourly, grid-cell specific

emission factors for different vehicle and roadway

classifications are modeled with the Mobile 6 model (U.S.

EPA [47]).

5. GOVERNING

 

 

n1001 - n1002 - n1003 - n1004 - n1005 - n1006 - n1007 - n1008 - n1009 - n1010 - n1011 - n1012 - n1013 - n1014 - n1015 - n1016 - n1017 - n1018 - n1019 - n1020 - n1021 - n1022 - n1023 - n1024 - n1025 - n1026 - n1027 - n1028 - n1029 - n1030 - n1031 - n1032 - n1033 - n1034 - n1035 - n1036 - n1037 - n1038 - n1039 - n1040 - n1041 - n1042 - n1043 - n1044 - n1045 - n1046 - n1047 - n1048 - n1049 - n1050

 

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