Off-line CMAQ modeling primarily relies at present on the

PSU/NCAR MM5 system (Grell et al. [12]) as the

meteorological driver. MM5 is a complex, full-physics,

state-of-the-science community model. MM5 Version 2

allows both the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic dynamic

options, while MM5 Version 3 supports only the nonhydrostatic

dynamics. MM5 has a rich pool of physics

modules for the planetary boundary layer (PBL)

parameterization, radiation schemes, sub-grid cloud

parameterizations, explicit moisture physics, and landsurface

modeling. Different model physics

parameterizations are typically applied as the horizontal grid

spacing is changed. For off-line air quality modeling, oneway

nesting is generally used in MM5 with multiscale

FDDA, following Stauffer and Seaman [32].

CMAQ can also acquire meteorology data from the

Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)

(Tremback [33], Pielke et al. [23]). RAMS is a technically

comparable model to MM5, but it uses a different vertical

coordinate and a different horizontal grid system, and it

generates a different suite of output variables. RAMS data

have been linked to CMAQ (Sugata et al. [34]) by

modifying a RAMS post-processor and CMAQ’s

Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP).




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