where σ z , σ z , σ ˜p , σ po , and η are vertical coordinates

often used in meteorological models. Refer to Table 1 for

the definitions of the vertical coordinates. This restriction

simplifies physical interpretation of terms in the governing

equations and eventually the computer coding of the


3.2 Meteorological Model Data for CMAQ

Air quality models are often run many times with different

scenarios to understand the effects of emissions control

strategies on the pollutant concentrations using the same

meteorological data. Several methods have been used to

supply the meteorology data to Eulerian air quality models


such as the CCTM. Seaman [31] discusses the

characteristics of three types of meteorological processors:

diagnostic models, dynamic models, and dynamic models

with four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). An offline

dynamic meteorological model with FDDA typically

provides meteorological data for the CCTM. However, a

successful air quality simulation requires that the key

parameters in the meteorological data (e.g., wind, density,

moisture variables) be consistent in the meteorological

model and the CCTM. CMAQ replicates the dynamic

assumptions used for the meteorological simulation on the

same coordinate and grid systems. The coordinate

transformation is performed implicitly using the Jacobian

(calculated in a pre-processor to the CCTM) within the

CCTM. CMAQ allows the use of different vertical

coordinates without having to exchange science process

modules describing physical parameterizations. CMAQ

follows the methods in Byun [28], [29] for the

implementation of the generalized coordinate.



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