pollution applications. It is comprised of several

meteorological and air pollution models, including the

Danish Eulerian model (Zlatev et al. [21]), capable of

operating for applications ranging from hemispheric scale

over Europe and urban background scales to urban street

scale. PEGASUS (PNNL Eulerian Gas Aerosol Scalable

Unified System) (Fast et al. [22]) is an atmospheric

chemistry modeling system consisting of the Regional

Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) (Pielke et al. [23])

and a chemical transport model. Many of these systems

have similar capabilities but their levels of completeness

vary widely.

2.2. Models-3 CMAQ Modeling System

The Models-3 CMAQ modeling system has evolved from

several models operated at EPA, such as RADM, SAQM,

UAM, and ROM. The system consists of three primary

components (meteorology, emissions, and a chemical

transport model) and several interface processors. Figure 1

illustrates the relationship between the CMAQ processors

and requisite interfaces with the chemical transport model.

With this structure, CMAQ retains the flexibility to

substitute other emissions modeling systems and

meteorological models. In the initial release, the Models-3

Emission Processing and Projection System (MEPPS)

produced the emissions and MM5 provided the

meteorological fields needed for the CMAQ Chemical

Transport Model (hereafter, CCTM). However, within the

CMAQ paradigm, the emission processing and

meteorological modeling systems can be substituted with

alternative processors. The arrows in Figure 1 show the

flow of data through the modeling system. A set of

preprocessors provides linkage mechanisms among the

meteorology, emissions, and chemistry transport modeling

components. These processors include: the Emission-

Chemistry Interface Processor (ECIP) that translates data

from the MEPPS emission model for use in the CCTM; the

Plume Dynamics Model that computes geometry of sub-grid

scale Lagrangian plumes for large elevated emitters; and the

Meteorology-Chemistry Interface Processor (MCIP) that

translates and processes outputs from the meteorology

model for the CCTM. More recently, the SMOKE (Sparse

Matrix Operator Kernel Emission) modeling system (Coats

and Houyoux [24], Houyoux and Vukovich [25]) has been

incorporated into the Models-3 system to replace MEPPS

and ECIP. Initial condition and boundary condition

processors (ICON and BCON) provide concentration fields

for individual chemical species at the beginning of a

simulation and for the grid cells surrounding the modeling

domain, respectively, and the photolysis processor (JPROC)

calculates temporally varying photolysis rates.




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