because the RADM formulation diverged from the MM5

governing equation. EURAD (Hass [14]) was a reimplementation

of RADM and SAQM for European

applications. To maintain the dynamic and numerical

consistency between meteorology and air quality,

development of on-line or coupled modeling systems

followed. An MM5 on-line chemistry model (Grell et al.

[15]) and GATOR/MMTD (Jacobson et al. [16]) provided

excellent tools for interactive science research, although the

systems are not practical for retrospective application studies

where meteorology is held constant and emissions scenarios

change in each application.

As stated before, earlier AQMs addressed individual

pollutant issues such as urban ozone, regional acid

deposition, particles, nitrogen, and toxics problems

separately. It has become increasingly evident that pollutant

issues are inter-linked and cannot be treated in isolation.

Pollutants in the atmosphere are subject to a myriad of

transport processes and transformation pathways that control

their composition and most of them react with hydroxyl

radicals. Air pollutant concentration fields are sensitive to

the type and history of the atmospheric mixtures of different

chemical compounds. Thus, modeled abatement strategies of

pollutant precursors, such as volatile organic compounds

(VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), to reduce ozone levels

may, under a variety of conditions, cause an exacerbation of

other air pollutants such as particulate matter or acidic

deposition. Proper modeling of these air pollutants requires

that the broad range of multiple temporal and spatial scales

(hereafter, multiscale) of multiple pollutant (hereafter, multipollutant)

interactions be considered simultaneously.

In addition to the models described above, many other

modeling systems that can be applied to multiscale air

quality studies exist. For example, the CHIMERE model

(Vautard et al. [17]) is primarily designed to produce daily

forecasts of ozone and other pollutants over Western Europe

and make long-term simulations. The MATCH (Multi-scale

Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model (Robertson et

al. [18]) has been developed as a flexible

transport/chemistry/deposition model for atmospheric

pollutants. It is used in a range of applications from urban

scale studies on ~5 km or higher horizontal resolutions to

continental scale studies on acid deposition and

photochemistry. Meteorological data were taken from

archived output of the operational HIRLAM model [19].

THOR (Brandt et al. [20]) is an integrated weather and air

pollution forecast and scenario model system for air




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