(the SBL formulation for Fza ) with the urban PBL assumed to be neutral (i.e., N = 0). For the

lateral dispersion in the urban boundary layer, Fya is calculated using the SBL formulation given

by eq. (76).

The potential temperature gradient in the night-time urban boundary layer is set equal to the

upwind rural profile (Section 4.1.3) for all heights above ziu, and is assumed to be equal to a small

positive value below ziu; i.e.,

For plumes below ziu , the effective reflection surface is set equal to the height of the urban

boundary layer (i.e., zieff = ziu). Plumes that rise above ziu (hes > ziu) are modeled with a zieff that is

calculated from eq. (68) with zim replaced by ziu. Plume rise in the urban stable boundary layer is

calculated from eqs. (95) - (99) with M2/Mz taken from eq.(107).

Use of this value for M2/Mz provides an appropriate near-neutral plume rise formulation that is

expected within the nocturnal urban boundary layer. However, plume height in these conditions

is not allowed to exceed 1.25 ziu.

For daytime conditions (L < 0) in urban areas, AERMOD uses the same formulations as in

rural areas (i.e., no urban-related adjustments to boundary layer characteristics).



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