NO2+ O3 (or H2O2) Þ NO3@ + O2 (+H2O)

NO3@ + NO2 Þ N2O5

N2O5 + H2O Þ 2HNO3

Particulate nitrate, NO3, is formed by reaction of gaseous HNO3 with sea salt, alkaline

particles, or gaseous NH3 or by reaction in liquid phase (e.g. droplets) of HNO3 with

alkaline components including ammonium and subsequent water evaporation.

Conversion of gaseous HNO3 and NH3 to particulate NH4NO3 is a process of

importance for deposition, since easily deposited gaseous compounds are turned into

fine particulate of NO3 and NH4, which are slowly deposited and transported over

large distances. NH4NO3 and ammonium sulphate ([NH4]2SO4) are hygroscopic, and

humidity in the air will to some extent determine the size of the particles in the air and

thus influence the rate of deposition. The formation of NH4NO3 is reversible and at

low NH3 concentrations can be converted back to HNO3. The supply of NH3 is

therefore an important factor in determining the residence time of nitrogen oxides.

 

 

 

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